You must have written your research paper, your personal essay, your book review-----whatever your school class requires. You think you have provided good information in the needed number of words.①
But is it really done? Many teachers and professional writers believe that writing is revision. ② Revision of writing is a necessary skill for students. The classroom is a good place to practice patience, concentration and listening. There are rewards with spending time with your thoughts and really taking time to compose your ideas in an orderly and reasonable way. You should put away your paper after you have written a first version, or draft. Wait several hours, maybe overnight, before working on it more. ③ Not only are you refreshed, but you’re looking at things through different eyes. That’s what revision literally means—to see again through different eyes.
Following a four-step process may help you with your paper. The first step in the process is invention. It includes forming many questions about your subject. It is called “question-storming”. ④Then comes the revision period. Take your time to read what you’ve written, to think about it, and maybe to re-shape it based on what you see now, as a kind of new person looking at it with a reader’s eyeglasses rather than a writer’s. The fourth step is called “publication”. ⑤In a sense, anytime you turn it over to another person, that’s publication.Probably, the process takes away some of the tension of writing. And worry about the quality of your writing often disappears when you share that writing.
A. Perfect writing is not possible.
B. In the second step, you draft and compose a paper.
C. And you feel good because your work is finished.
D. This is just like returning to a job after a vacation.
E. This does not mean your writing is professional publication.
F. What is most important is getting your thoughts and ideas on paper.
G. In other words, writing well means making needed changes and rewriting.
Every animal sleeps,but the reason for this has remained foggy.When lab rats are not allowed to sleep,they die within amonth. ①
One idea is that sleep helps us strengthen new memories. ②We know that,while awake,fresh memories are recorded by reinforeing (加强) connections between brain cells,but the memory processes that take place while we sleep have been unclear.
Support is growing for a theory that sleep evolved so that connections between neurons (神经元) in the brain can be weakened overnight,making room for fresh memories to from the next day. ③
Now we have the most direct evidence yet that he is right. ④The synapses in the mice taken at the end of a period of sleep were 18 percent smaller than those taken before sleep,showing that the connections between neurons weaken while sleeping.
If Tononi's theory is right,it would explain why,when we miss a night's,we find it harder the nextday to concentrate and learn new information-our brains may have smaller room for new experences.
Their research also suggests how we may build lasting memories over time even though the synapscs become thinner.The team discovered that some synapses seem to be protected and stayed the same size. ⑤"You keep what matters,”Tononi says.
A. We should also try to sleep well the night before.
B. It’s as if the brain is preserving its most important memories.
C. Similarly, when people go for a few days without sleeping, they get sick.
D. The processes take place to stop our brains becoming loaded with memories.
E. That’s why students do better in tests if they get a chance to sleep after learning.
F. “Sleep is the price we pay for learning,” says Giulio Tononi, who developed the idea.
G. Tononi’s team measured the size of these connections, or synapses, in the brains of 12 mice.
Lots of people find it hard to get up in the morning ,and put the blame on the alarm clock. In fact, the key to easy morning wake-up lies in resting your body clock. ①
Here is how to make one.
● ②In order to make a change, you need to decide why it's important. Do you want to get up in time to have breakfast with your family, get in some exercise, or just be better prepared for your day? Once you are clear about your reason, tell your family or roommates about the change you want to make.
●Rethink mornings. Now that you know why you want to wake up, consider re-arranging your morning activities. If you want time to have breakfast with your family, save some time the night before by setting out clothes, shoes, and bags. ③That’s a quarter-hour more you could be sleeping if you bought a coffee maker with a timer.
●Keep your sleep/wake schedule on weekends. If you’re tired out by Friday night, sleeping in on Saturday could sound wonderful. But compensating on the weekends actually feeds into your sleepiness the following week, a recent study found. ④
●Keep a record and evaluate it weekly. Keep track of your efforts and write down how you feel. After you’ve tried a new method for a week, take a look at your record. ⑤If not, take another look at other methods you could try.
A. Get a sleep specialist.
B. Find the right motivation.
C. A better plan for sleep can help.
D. And consider setting a second alarm.
E. If the steps you take are working, keep it up.
F. Stick to your set bedtime and wake-up time, no matter the day.
G. Reconsider the 15 minutes you spend in line at the café to get coffee.
The man-on-the-street interview is an interview in which a reporter hits the streets with a cameraman to interview people on the sport. ①But with these tips, your first man-on-the-street interview experience can be easy.
● When your boss or professor sends you out to do man-on-the-street interviews for a story, think about the topic and develop a list of about ten general questions relating to it. For example, if your topic is about environmental problems in America, you might ask, “Why do you think environmental protection is important in America?” ②
● Hit the streets with confidence.③Say, “Excuse me, I work for XYZ News, and I was wondering if you could share your opinion about this topic.” This is a quick way to get people to warm up to you.Move on to the next person if someone tells you she is not interesteDon’t get discouraged.
● ④Each interview that you get on the street shouldn’t be longer than ten minutes. As soon as you get the answer you need, move on to the next person. Make sure that as you go from interview to interview, you are getting a variety of answers. If everyone is giving you the same answer, you won’t be able to use it. A safe number of interviews to conduct is about six to ten.⑤
● If your news station or school requires interviewees to sign release forms to appear on the air, don’t leave work without them.
A.Limit your time.
B.As you approach people, be polite.
C.If you don’t own a camera, you can buy one.
D.For new reporters, this can seem like a challenging task.
E.To get good and useful results, ask them the same question.
F.That number of interviews should give you all the answers you need.
G.With a question like this, you will get more than a “Yes” or “No” reply.
The Descendants of the Sun (太阳的后裔) that really ①(earn) the praise(reputation)of K-drama fans. It made its debut(首映) on February 24, 2016 with an average of 13 percent in the Seoul National Capital Area. The next night, ratings ②(go)up an average of two percent.③(apparent), those two episodes set up Descendants of the Sun as it dominated the competition with its third episode. ④nationwide and Seoul National Capital Area for both TNmS Ratings and AGB Nielson, the K-drama earned over 20 percent viewership ratings(收视率).
For those ⑤do not know what Descendants of the Sun is about, it is a drama about the love of people who get ⑥(close) as they learn to be considerate of each other in desperate times. It is also about the sacrifices made by people who throw themselves ⑦ natural disasters. Captain Yoo Shi Jin(柳大尉) (Song Joong Ki宋仲基) is the team leader of the Special Warfare Command of the United Nations Peacekeeping Troops. By request of the UN, he is ⑧(station) in the war-torn country of Uruk(乌鲁克). ⑨he meets Kang Mo Yeon(姜暮烟) (Song Hye Kyo宋慧乔), a volunteer doctor with Doctors Without Borders. ⑩they work alongside each other, they clash and fall in love.
I was living a life in my screen and hardly noticed what ①(be) around me. I was always checking the time and thinking of future②(plan).My thought was:“Who’s going to text me now? What will I do next?” My bedtime routine was usually centered ③one thing:my phone. ④I went to sleep,I browsed through news websites and checked my emails. When I woke up in the middle of the night, I did the same thing. The problem with this was that I felt anxious every night.
So when my friends invited me ⑤(go)for a long weekend camping without the cell service,I thought this was ⑥(exact) what I needed. Here’s how ⑦(keep)away from my phone for 48 hours changed me and my way of life.
Without my phone,I ⑧(fall) asleep listening to the songs of frogs and crickets .In the morning,I woke up energy. Sitting by the river,riding a bike,or singing the old songs,I ⑨(true) enjoyed what I was doing.
I felt free without my phone at weekend camp, ⑩changed me completely. I listened to what my body wanted instead of what my phone was telling me to do.
In the West, most families have pets, like cats, dogs, and birds. If you live ①a farm you also have horses, sheep, goats and something of this sort ②will become part of the extended family.
Our family had many pets in the past. My favorite pet was a little gray poodle ③(call) Suzie. The first time I saw her, she had long matted hair, needed a bath and haircut, but had such ④beautiful face. I ⑤(take) her home, bathed her and clipped all her hair back to reveal the most lovable little dog.
Poodles are full of ⑥(intelligent) and she was too. She learned to recognize the sounds different ⑦(car) in our household made. She knew when my father’s car was coming down the road, and would run around ⑧(mad) barking then rush out to the front driveway and sit there⑨(wait) for him. She also seemed to know when people ⑩(be) upset and would jump up onto their laps and sit there cuddling up as if to give comfort.
My grandfather is a ①(retire) worker. On summer evenings, we often sat together outside the house ②(enjoy) the cool air. It was the time that he told me lots of his experiences before liberation.
When my grandfather was fourteen years old, he worked in a coal mine. One day, when he and his two workmates were working in the tunnel, an ③ (fortune) thing suddenly happened. A part of the tunnel fell down, and they were shut in it. They had no food ④(eat). When they were hungry, they only drank some water there. It was very cold in it. In order to keep warm, they hugged one another. In the darkness, they didn’t know whether it was day ⑤night, they only felt they had stayed there for a very long time. They were too hungry to speak or move, and thought they ⑥(die). At last, the tunnel ⑦(dig) through. They were saved. They had been there for fourteen days! My grandfather said they weren’t let out at once. If ⑧,they would have died. They were kept at the entrance to the tunnel ⑨it was very dim, and they were fed ⑩some thin porridge. After a day or two, they had recovered a bit, and they were helped out.